**¹****2(19), 2005**

**PROBLEMS OF MECHANICS**

**SUMMARIES**

FORWARD AND
INVERSE KINEMATICS OF SERIAL PLANAR MANIPULATORS BY USING QUATERNION ALGEBRA.** Rasim I. Alizade, Fatih Cemal Can. **“Problems
of Mechanics”, Tbilisi, 2005, ¹ 2(19),
pp. 7 – 14, (Engl.).

As being one of the alternative solutions to the kinematic analysis of mechanisms, quaternions are mostly being used for their computational efficiency and fewer calculation requirements. In current paper, defining the quaternion operations and plane quaternions, kinematic analysis of deficient, sufficient and redundant degrees of freedom planar manipulators are introduced. Also, required trigonometric expressions for the location of end effectors are found in terms of link and joint parameters, and using these, inverse kinematic analysis is discussed. 4 ill. Bibl. 12. Engl.; summ. in Russ.

Kinematic projecting and investigation of the
mechanism of the drive of a cone crusher.**
****N. Davitashvili. **“Problems
of Mechanics”, Tbilisi, 2005, ¹ 2(19), pp. 15 – 22, (Engl.).** **

On the basis of analysis of existing actuators of a cone crusher of mineral raw material it is revealed a spherical slider-crank mechanism, which can be used as an actuator of cone crushers. By the method of point interpolation it is carried out the kinematic design of a spherical four-link slider-crank mechanism, which connecting rod’s output point describes predetermined spherical circle. The kinematic parameters of the designed spherical mechanism, allowing the investigation of dynamics of the mechanisms of actuators of cone crushers, are determined. 4 ill. Bibl. 10. Engl.; summ. in Russ.

DIRECT
KINEMATICS OF RRR-P-R TYPE SPHERICAL FIVE-BAR ROBOT MANIPULATORS USING
QUATERNION METHOD.** Özgür
Kilit. **“Problems of Mechanics”, Tbilisi, 2005, ¹ 2(19), pp. 23 – 28, (Engl.).

In this study,
Direct Kinematic Analysis of RRR-P-R type spherical five-bar linkages has been
investigated. To do this, firstly quaternion algebra has been presented and
then applied to the rigid body rotation of spherical links. A new geometric
algorithm which includes the intersection of a cone and a circle has been
represented. At the end of this
analysis, the equations of the output parameters, with respect to the input and
constant parameters have been derived. Moreover, workspace analysis has also
been given. Workspace of a given linkage with respect to the input parameters
have been shown graphically. 3 ill. Bibl. 10. Engl.; summ. in. Russ.

EFFECT OF SCAVENGING OF
GASES TO CRANKCASE ON ACTUAL COMPRESSION RATIO DURING START-UP.** Karol Franciszek Abramek. **“Problems of
Mechanics”, Tbilisi, 2005, ¹ 2(19), pp. 29 – 33, (Engl.).

In this lecture there are shown the results of measurements of the intensity of scavenging of gases to the 359 engine crankcase for the speed below the idle running. There is also defined the effect of scavenging of the exhaust gases to the value of the actual compression ratio during the engine start-up. 3 ill. Bibl. 1. Engl.; summ. in Russ.

SELECTED
PROBLEMS OF SLOW SPEED MARINE ENGINES
COMBUSTION CHAMBER MAINTENANCE.** W. Kamiński. **“Problems of
Mechanics”, Tbilisi, 2005,

¹ 2(19), pp. 34 – 37, (Engl.).

Continuous development and updates of the
combustion chamber have taken place during the last two decades on SULZER and
MAN B&W Diesel’s two-stroke engines in order to maintain satisfactory
cylinder condition with long intervals between piston and cylinder overhauls.
Research program made by Maritime University at Szczecin – Poland, forced me to
describe operational problems with safe running-in and predictable overhauling
intervals witch are the key parameters characterising a good engine’s Cylinder
Condition. Bibl. 6. Engl.; summ. in. Russ.

CONTROL OF THE TECHNICAL STATE OF AIRSHIPS IN OPERATING CONDIDIENS WITH USE OF MATHEMATICAL MODELLING. **S. Tepnadze, L. Topuria.**** **“Problems of Mechanics”, Tbilisi, 2005, ¹
2(19), pp. 38 – 42, (Russ.).

It is developed a mathematical model, which can be used not only for the
analysis of reliability level (safety of flights) of separate details and
systems of aeronautical enginering, but also for the control of the technical
state of entire airship. The concrete example (airplane Il-76, equipped with
engines D-3u-KP) of estimation of the level of flights safety at change of the
level of reliability of aero-engines, taking into account influencing
operational factors and conditions, is considered. 2 ill. Bibl. 7. Russ.

CONTROL
OF the technical state of airships
during planning of regular reutine maintenance with use of mathematical
modeLling. **S. Tepnadze, L. Topuria. **“Problems of Mechanics”, Tbilisi, 2005, ¹
2(19), pp. 43 – 46, (Russ.).

It is developed a
mathematical model, which can be used not only for the analysis of the
technical state of separate details and systems of aeronautical enginering, but
also for the control of the technical state of entire airship. Under operating
conditions, the concrete example of estimation for the technical state of
aeronautical engineering with use of mathematical modelling and taking into
account operational factors and condition is considered. 3 ill. Bibl. 6. Russ.

Hardening of the growing materials of shock
loading.** ****R.Makharoblidze, R.Japaridze, J.Dzirkvadze. **“Problems of
Mechanics”, Tbilisi, 2005,

¹ 2(19), pp. 47 – 52, (Russ.).

Calculating formulas are being taken about relevant deformation, tension and density for the using of the growing materials of shock loading taking into consideration their quality and parameters of beating body and pressing camera. The results of the investigation may be used for making parameters of working organ pressing-machine-pickers. Calculating parameters and direction for experimental investigations for further specifying are being taken. 1 ill. Bibl. 3. Russ.

The research of the work of the items of the
universal machines introducing organic and mineral fertilizers into the tea
plantations.** ****N. Gabunia, V. Motiashvili. **“Problems of
Mechanics”, Tbilisi, 2005, ¹ 2(19), pp. 53 – 57, (Russ.).

New tools in which, before the seeding slot is installed an unloading board, on which a part of moving layer of fertilizer goes up, are proposed. Particles stars to move downwards from the unloading board. A formula determining the time of their displacement has been developed. 3 ill. Bibl. 5. Russ.

SPHERE OF EFFECTIVE APPLICATION OF FIELD OF
FORCE, WHICH RECEIVED BY LASER MICROEXPLOSION.** J. Bakhtadze, M.
Tsikarishvili, T. Anjaparidze, L. Beridze, G. Metreveli. **“Problems
of Mechanics”, Tbilisi, 2005, ¹ 2(19), pp. 58 – 62, (Russ.).

Methods of utilization field of force obtained by laser microexplosion is worked out, and efficacious level of its application is found. This methods are: punching, vibration, hydraulic blow, recovery of heart activity function, treatment of tumours in hollow spheres. Each taken separately is considered. 4 ill. Bibl. 5. Russ.

Liser powder alloy of concrete details.** ****E. Semiletova, N. Bakradze, L. Chaya. **“Problems of Mechanics”,
Tbilisi, 2005, ¹ 2(19), pp. 63 – 68, (Russ.).

In the work
are stated the result of investigation possibilities of usaje laser alloy
for the problematic area of joining surfaces of the disk-type details with
the help of powder (width=6.9mm and height=1mm). For the purpose of increasing
of their wear-resistance these areas in the whole condition the workability
of the link which is in different fields of industry. Laser equipment
of continious action was used. The power of which was 3-5 kwt, the speed of
shifting of the detail relative to imanation is 0.5 mm/min. The material of
the detail is steel 45, the applied powder of type WCW_{2}C, NCNi,
TiCNiCr_{3.} 6 ill. Bibl. 2. Russ.

_{ }

FORECASTING
PROCESSES OF SEPARATION FOR IRREGULAR SOLUTIONS OF A THREE–COMPONENT SYSTEM
ALLOYS.** N. Zoidze,** **G. Gordeziani.
**“Problems of Mechanics”, Tbilisi, 2005, ¹ 2(19), pp. 69 – 72, (Russ.).

Mathematical
model is constructed for analysis of critical points of irregular
three-component solutions, where in the enthalpy part of Gibbs potential in
corresponding form are added energy coefficients of ternary interaction.
Critical values of temperature and concentrations are searched for irregular a–solution
(phase) of the alloy Fe–W–Cr by means of binary and specified coefficients. On
the base of these values is determined process of separation into three similar
phases_{ }for the a–solution of the alloy Fe–W–Cr below the critical
temperature T = 422,733182 K. 1 ill. Bibl. 5. Russ.

NEW APPROACH TO MONITORING OF STRUCTURAL
INTEGRITY OF MECHANICAL SYSTEMS.** Z. Seskuria. **“Problems of
Mechanics”, Tbilisi, 2005, ¹ 2(19), pp. 73 – 76, (Russ.).

It is considered the monitoring of the structural integrity of a machine equipment by the fibrous-optical methods. This methods ensure the permanent control of an investigated object, also determine a latent mechanical damages and defects in the machine parts. Also may be revealed such defects as a corrosion, fissures, local edges, rust, tracks of electric erosion particularly, in the almost inaccessibles places of an aggregate. 2 ill. Bibl. 5. Russ.

Influence
of the phases of gas distribution on toxic and power-economic indices of an
engine.** N. Diasamidze, T.
Natriashvili, D. Javakhishvili, L. Zurabashvili, L. Bubuteishvili. **“Problems of Mechanics”, Tbilisi,
2005, ¹ 2(19), pp. 77 – 82, (Russ.).

In this paper the questions on the influence of the phases of gas distribution of automobile gasoline engine on toxic components in waste gases, power and torque, and also hour and specific fuel consumptions. By experimental way there are obtained graphic dependences between the lead angle of admission valve’s opening and the indicated parameters of an engine, which give the possibility of optimization of the phases of gas distribution. 4 ill. Bibl. 2. Russ.

Development of the method for
determination of quantity of technical services of forcing-engines.** ****V. Tsverava, M. Bezborodko, G. Abramishvili, L. Zurabishvili, L.
Bubuteishvili. **“Problems of
Mechanics”, Tbilisi, 2005,

¹ 2(19), pp. 83 – 87, (Russ.).

In this paper the method for determination of the most real quantity of technical services of forcing-engines, based on the distribution law of annual run of the automobiles of indicated type, is developed. 3 ill. Bibl. 2. Russ.

Loading of transmission gears and
bearings of all-wheel drive automobiles on rural roods of highlands.** ****M. Bubuteishvili, A. Muchaidze, D. Dzotsenidze, L. Zurabishvili. **“Problems
of Mechanics”, Tbilisi, 2005,

¹ 2(19), pp. 88 – 93, (Russ.).

In this paper the loading modes of transmission gears and bearings of all-wheel drive automobiles used on rural mountainous roads of Georgia are investigated. It is recommended to set them according to calculated torque, run and frequency of rotation of transmission shafts. 3 ill. Bibl. 2. Russ.

ATTEMPT OF
JOINING OF NORTH-CAUCASIAN AND TRANS-CAUCASIAN RAILWAYS IN THE DIRECTION OF
SUKHUMI-SENAKI IN SECOND HALF OF NINETEENTH CENTURY (PLAN OF PROFESSOR I.
PROTSENKO).** T. Kupatadze. **“Problems
of Mechanics”, Tbilisi, 2005, ¹ 2(19), pp. 94 – 100, (Russ.).

It is considered in historical plan the attempt of joining of Northcaucasian and Transcaucasian railways, which supposed a construction of railway from station Tikhoretsk to Tsaritsin and from station Nevinnomissk to Sukhumi, and then Akhali-Senaki, what would lay the basis of function a main lines of Volga river and Black Sea coast and engaging of Northcaucasian and Transcaucasian railways in the one system. Bibl. 6. Russ.

PROBLEM OF
TRANS-SHIPPING CAUCASIONI’S RAILWAYS UP TO TWENTIES OF TWENTIETH CENTURY.** T. Kupatadze. **“Problems of Mechanics”,
Tbilisi, 2005, ¹2 (19), pp. 101 – 106, (Russ.).

It is considered the issue of history of a projecting and a building of trans-shipping Caucasioni’s railways. It is given the appraisal of a versions which at one time was by well-known engineers and specialists. Bibl. 7. Russ.